After Brighton rejected a succession of bids from Chelsea, it remains to be seen whether the Blues will now match that amount.
Brighton had set a fee in excess of £100m for Caicedo and had said they felt no-one would reach it.
However, Liverpool have now done that, which leaves the 21-year-old Ecuador international free to go for a medical.
Liverpool lost midfielders Jordan Henderson and Fabinho to the Saudi Pro League last month but signed Caicedo’s Brighton team-mate Alexis Mac Allister in June for £35m.
The fee agreed for Caicedo exceeds the £107m Chelsea paid for Argentina midfielder Enzo Fernandez earlier this year.
Caicedo joined Brighton from Ecuadorian side Independiente del Valle for £4m in February 2021,with a 20% sell-on clause included in the deal. He did not make his Premier League debut until April 2022.
He asked to leave Brighton in the January transfer window earlier this year. Arsenal then had multiple offers turned down for Caicedo before the player signed a new contract with the Seagulls until 2027 in March.
Liverpool manager Jurgen Klopp has been looking at various options to rebuild his squad after they finished fifth in the Premier League last season and failed to qualify for the Champions League.
However, the price they are prepared to pay for Caicedo comes as a surprise, as in In April, the club said they would not make a move for England midfielder Jude Bellingham because of the money involved.
The 20-year-old later joined Real Madrid in a deal that could reach 133.9m euros (£115m).
Southampton midfielder Romeo Lavia, 19, has also been on Klopp’s list of potential transfers, but the Reds have seen three bids rejected by the Saints, who reportedly value the Belgian at £50m.
While all the noise was around Chelsea’s efforts to sign Caicedo, it is understood Reds chief executive Billy Hogan worked quietly behind the scenes to get this deal in place.
Brighton had a figure they wanted for Caicedo – someone they believe could go on to become one of the world’s best – and Hogan’s approach allowed Liverpool to get there.
It left Chelsea out-negotiated and out-manoeuvred and may deliver to Klopp one of the most exciting talents in the Premier League – albeit at a fee that reflects that.